Fall Cover Crop Success – Made SIMPLE

I am often asked by my clients what they should be doing NOW to ensure long-term success. At this time of year, I tell them, “Remember that soil microbes need to eat every day, and you’ve got to feed them!” If you were left starving and naked outside all winter, would you be ready to work in the spring? Probably not. Soil microbial life is the same; in order to keep soil vital through the winter rains, freezing temperatures, wind, and whatever other weather might come your way, then cover up your pastures, cropland, lawns and gardens!

Since any system is only as good as its weakest link, anywhere that the cold air, raindrops, and wind can get to your soil without a carbon blanket (a cover of dead or living plant material) is an area where your system will shut down and cause you problems next year. If there are spaces between your plants, I like to think of them as holes in your land’s sweater and rain jacket. Brrrr! Even between your cover crop plants, you want that soil covered! Once you get effective rotations of crops and cover crops, plant residues aka “litter” from the previous crop will ensure that you have no bare soil.

Luckily, fall, winter, and early spring are the best times to build your soil.

Usually, we have good moisture in the winter. It’s not so dry as in the heat of summer, and you can build soil structure rapidly – especially if you have living roots and covered soil. Microbes are active even under the snow, especially if there is enough “litter” or plant matter covering the soil surface for them to eat. Cover crops are the best option for soil cover because they provide both carbon cover, living roots AND sugars to feed soil microbes directly. That means more soil structure and organic matter being built all winter so you have more water- and nutrient-holding capacity next spring.

In case you are new to cover cropping or need a basic refresher, this practice (sometimes known as growing “green manure”) uses winter-hardy plants that will be grazed, stomped, rolled, or cut down in the spring to loosen and aerate the soil. Although it is sometimes advised, I’ve found that it is not generally helpful to till them in to kill them in the spring, as that disturbs soil fungal networks. Of course, there are a few occasions where doing so might be warranted as a stop-gap on your way to a management approach that relies less on harmful disturbance. One example of when you may need to till the cover crops to kill them is when nutrient cycling is really shut down, and you need the tillage to break down the residues, such as when transitioning heavily tilled and/or chemically laden soil.

The Benefits of Cover Crops

When you plant cover crops in fall, you will:

  • Protect the soil from compaction, erosion, wind, freezing and nutrient loss due to hard winter rains
  • Suppress and reduce weeds during the winter, as well as next growing season if the residues are left on top of the soil
  • Maintain and enhance soil structure
  • Build organic matter and keep nutrients cycling in the soil
  • Enhance microbial diversity, numbers and activity
  • Save you $$$, labor and time! Planting into soft, fluffy soil is much easier than planting into compacted chunks, plus it takes less weeding, watering, and inputs

The Best Time To Plant Fall Cover Crops

To accomplish these goals, you’ll want to get the cover crop sown at least 6 weeks before first frost date. Usually, for spring grazing and planting, you don’t want to seed too early and have the plants flower before frost and snow, as they won’t come back in the spring. Depending on your growing zone, that generally means that ideally, cover crops should be planted before the end of September to mid-October; you want them rooted and well established before the weather gets too nasty. Sometimes you can get lucky if you are planting late, and will get a successful crop, but the risk increases and benefits usually decrease after this planting window.

How to Choose & Plant the Right Cover Crop Mixture

When choosing a cover crop mixture, consider that cover crop species and functional groups are best used in combination. If you plant them together, aim to plant a nitrogen-fixing legume with a tall crop for structural support, or use a pre-combined mix suitable for your situation. Use taprooted crops to help break compaction (but know that some of these are best planted earlier in late summer, so they develop a taproot before the frost and that taproot dies off and feeds sugars to earthworms and provides holes for water infiltration over the winter!). 8-12 species mixtures are great, but you must make sure you can kill them at the right time for your spring planting and not have to use tillage or herbicides.

Below are a few easy to seed, cost-effective, simple mixes that will work well in the American northeast for fall seeding and rolling for an easy kill without herbicides.

Winter Cereal Rye (NOT annual ryegrass) and Austrian Winter Pea (a nitrogen fixing legume that flowers at the same time as the cereal rye). These can be mixed 64 lb per acre drilled rate; increase the rate for broadcast seeding and poorer soil conditions. They can be mixed into the same no-till drill compartment, or for small applications mixed in a bucket and thrown out together. The seeds need soil contact, and ideally plant them at a depth of ½” – ¾” into the soil for best germination. If you are hand seeding them, rake in and cover with mulch. You need to get them as deep as you can if you don’t have a drill… and add more to the seed rate to compensate for attrition.

If you want to get planting earlier (about 2 weeks earlier, in fact), try Crimson Clover at 12 lbs / A (it shouldn’t spread like other clovers as long as it’s rolled down before viable seed is formed) and Barley (a winter hardy cereal grain) at 76 lbs / A . This mix is a little trickier because ideally you would plant with a technique called “alternate row” seeding. When no-till drilled, put the barley in the grain box and the clover in the legume box, but cover alternate openings with cardboard and tape so that you seed one row of barley and the next of clover. If you are at home, it’s too laborious to hand plant individual rows, so mix them and do the best you can!

How and When to Kill the Cover Crop

One reason I recommend these 2 simple mixtures is because they are both easy to kill without tillage or herbicides. If you don’t have a roller – you can use a long wooden board and stomp it down (hint: tie a rope on either end and walk on it), a mower drug across with the blades turned off, or a barrel with a little water rolled across it. The pea will vine up the rye and help to kill it come spring without herbicides or tillage. Sometimes the peas grow back up a bit after rolling, but don’t worry about this as the heat kills them.

Pro tip: These peas are great for eating as fresh salad greens all winter, and the sweet shoots are delicious in stir fries or raw. Their flowers are incredible and look like orchids!)

You want to roll or knock it down until at LEAST 30% of the rye and pea are in flower stage. Once it starts growing in the spring, this can happen quickly as they develop fast. For a visual of what it looks like when ready to roll down, watch the following video. It is the same garden from the first video in this blog post – about a month later!

A continuous-cover, no-till, living root 24-7 system is the best to give your microbes food, shelter and warmth to increase their number of days they are actively working for you. Cropping in a no-till organic system, without herbicides or tillage, requires thinking and planning ahead; it can get complex to choose an approach that meets your current and future needs. When deciding which of the many cover crop options to use (as well as when deciding whether or not you need to seed a cover and where to seed them), it is important to KNOW YOUR WHY. I always recommend getting help from an experienced mentor to help you decide which cover crops are best for your unique situation.

Read Vail Dixon's post on Cover Crops at Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York (NOFA-NY) Field NotesSee our Pro Tips blog entry on the Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York (NOFA-NY), which focuses on inoculants, to learn more about making the most of this important practice and this vital time of year.

JOIN US! Vail will be presenting more great information at NOFA-NY’s 2018 Winter Conference January 19-21, 2018 in Saratoga Springs, NY.

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Do your plants and soil need help NOW?

How are your plants looking?

Spring is the time of year when we see the results of our fall and winter soil management. Things often green up but then run into problems as they grow because they are running out of nutrient.

If your plants have weird colors, diseases, insects, or excessive weeds, then you can address these issues by working on the root cause of the problem… by getting your soil healthier.

However, your plants are setting their yield potential RIGHT NOW and won’t wait for the time it takes for your soil to get healthy! They need nutrition to grow a good yield… and they need it SOON.

Did you know you can take leaves or parts of your plants and send them to a lab and for less than $30 know what they need to make yield?

One of my favorite things to do is to pull a plant tissue or sap analysis. It sounds technical but all you do is go grab some leaves or other parts of the plant (varies according to what you want to know)…and send to the lab.

You get back a cute colored chart of what the plants need. Then you can give them that with a backpack sprayer, bucket and water, garden hose and fertilizer mixer, or spray rig, whatever way you can get liquid onto the leaves, and into your soil.

Here is a video of one of my favorite people helping us mix up and spray out what our plants need. Even if you can’t pull the tissue test, we have recipes that will take the guesswork out of it and make more minerals available to your plants – just HOURS after the spray we saw results!

These same products help you to buy and spread less minerals on your soils too, as you can use a fraction of the purchased mined mineral and chelate it or bind it in forms that are more bioavailable to your plant – leaving less to tie up in the soil.

It is as easy as mixing things in water – so anyone can learn! I remember when I first heard the word chelate it sounded daunting and like something I could not do on my farm. I also remember being overwhelmed and confused about spray rigs and thinking they were some expensive thing that I couldn’t make myself.

I was wrong.

So whether it’s your houseplants or large fields, we can help you design a simple program that YOU CAN DO!

One great upcoming opportunity where we will be covering the hands-on details of all of this is our upcoming Grow Your Soil workshop, April 28-30, 2017 in Nelson County, VA at our farm.

Check out www.Grow-Your-Soil.com for more info and to register! We still have a few scholarship and discounted slots available at a 75% off rate!

PS – If you want to do something but are feeling overwhelmed or blocked – write me an email and let me know what frustrates, challenges or holds you back! The more we know about what you need, the better resources we can make!

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Give your SEEDS a BOOST with Inoculant

Spring often brings planting!

Did you know that plants determine a majority of their potential yield shortly after germinating?

Each plant is slightly different, but the basic truth is that seeds feel out their environment when young, and set yield accordingly. So if your soil is still getting up to speed, you could be losing a valuable opportunity to increase quality and quantity of yield.

Inoculating your seed with beneficial microbes, minerals and enzymes can help jump start your production and help your soil heal!

Once I started learning about yield determination windows, it opened many doors for me because I was empowered to know WHEN and HOW I could affect yield in my systems!

One great way to improve your system is to inoculate seed just before planting with stabilized microbes and micronized minerals. We also add in a special enzyme chelator to make the minerals bioavailable and useable by microbes and plants – keeping them in forms that will not immediately tie up and become unavailable.

Learn how to get your seeds off to a great start with one of the least expensive and easiest ways to add and feed biology!

Learn HOW, WHY & WHEN to inoculate seed in the video below!

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Case Study – From WEEDs to productive pastures – in 2 years

You get the advantage of viewing years of testing and research in just 11 minutes.

Want to get rid of your weeds with NO added inputs?

Watch a 2 year transformation from mud hole and weeds to healthy diverse pasture – without ANY seed, herbicide or fertilizer – just using our wastes differently!

In this video, I take you through the transformation of our upper field, which went from a mud hole to a carpet of diverse plants by implementing simple and natural methods.

You will witness before and after photos, as well as progress at various stages of the process. Not only did grass and plants flourish, but weeds were wiped out, using just the power of our horses.

No chemicals or machines. Our soil and land didn’t just start to look better, it rebounded to super healthy levels much quicker than we ever thought possible.

I’m taking you inside our process in this short video. Watch the incredible results!

Enjoy, and if you’re ready to improve your own pastures, be sure to check out our Grazing Power Online Training Program!

Grazing Power Training Program with Vail Dixon

 

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Is your winter soil ALIVE?

Do you want your next growing season to be better than the last?

Then you need to keep your soil life fed and happy this winter so they are ready to go in spring.

In this video segment we show you how to tell if your soil is building — or if things are shut down. Even though this is a pasture, growers can go out and look for these signs underneath a decaying cover crop or mulch layer.

The Power of Winter Soil

If your soil is covered with living plants or dead plant matter, there is a pretty good chance that life is building soil for you – EVEN UNDER THE SNOW!

Most people do not realize how much soil building happens in the cold of winter. The carbon blanket keeps the soil temperature warmer than the air temp – so even if it is super cold in the air you can still have microbes building and earthworms and spiders crawling around.

This means that in the spring – or even in winter when the sun is out and temps rise a little – you have an underground army ready to supply your plants with nutrients!

You can affect your success tremendously by how you treat your soil now.

Grazing Power Training Program with Vail Dixon

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Prevent WEEDS from growing — feed your soil

Did you know that you can prevent weeds from growing by what you feed your soil?

Do you wish that you could PREVENT Weeds from growing instead of fighting them after the fact?

Weeds only dominate and grow in conditions where healthy diverse pastures can not thrive.  And you can change the conditions based on how you treat your soil.  This means you are able to manage for what you want and eliminate all the worry and spending fighting weeds.

Most strategies against weeds actually make the problem worse.  Once you understand your soil, you will also see the way forward.

Why WEEDS grow instead of GRASS

Healthy and productive grasslands thrive where the fungal biomass is in balance (1:1 ratio) with the bacterial biomass.  Weeds like pigweeds, dock, cocklebur and pokeberry generally grow in conditions that are too bacterially dominated.  Bushy and tree-like weeds like blackberry and locust dominate where the soil has moved too fungal for healthy grassland.

When we overgraze our pastures, we take away a lot of the grass stems and leaves that would otherwise fall on the soil surface and feed fungi.  Plus, the animals stomp and churn the soil, and deposit manure, saliva, milk foam, and urine (all bacterial foods) onto the soil that lacks carbon on top, and they make it too bacterial.  When this happens, we get weeds in our pastures.

What you can do to stop WEEDS?

Re-seeding does not correct the root of the problem, nor do they create the habitat needed for success.  Many people try re-seeding with little success because they have to take care of the basics.

Herbicides harm the soil microbes and when they die, the soil flattens into compaction and loses its air space.  Herbicides also tie up critical nutrients in the soil because they are heavy salts.  This pulls the nutrients away from your plants and the microbes – and inhibits proper nutrient cycling.  Often, herbicide use will keep you in the cycle of growing more weeds!

Once you take care of the basics (like knowing what to feed your soil), you will find that you likely will not need to pay for many of the more expensive pasture renovation techniques, so you can save time and money and get better results!

Stomping down fungal foods like brown stems of hay and dead stems of grasses onto the soil surface will increase your fungal biomass.  Stomping in manure, saliva, milk foam, urine, and legumes or young green grasses into the soil will feed bacterial biomass.

In this case study, we show how we fed the soil to favor grass and eliminate weeds; see how the weeds are struggling for nutrient and being eaten by insects while the grass is thriving.

To see more of this case study – visit our VIDEOS page:  http://simplesoilsolutions.com/videos/

Check it out!

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